The war in Croatia lasted until January 1992, when an unconditional ceasefire established a turbulent peace between the Croatian government and ethnic Serbs. The war between Croats and Bosniaks ended with the signing of the Washington Agreement in March 1994 and ended an uncomfortable alliance known as the Bosnian-Croat federation. Meanwhile, fighting between Croatian and Bosnian forces and Serbs continued despite international efforts for a lasting ceasefire, including a no-fly zone, a fire-free zone around Sarajevo and humanitarian operations. In February 1994, when NATO first used force, NATO fighter jets shot down four Serbian aircraft that violated the no-fly zone. Later, in May 1995, NATO conducted air raids on the Serbian stronghold of Pale. The deployment of NATO`s first peacekeeping force to the Balkans marks the beginning of non-NATO participation in NATO operations. A total of 43 different countries, including all NATO allies, contributed to the NATO Implementation Force (IFOR) and the smallest consecutive stabilization force (SFOR). NATO maintained peace and security in Bosnia and Herzegovina for nine years, from December 1995 to the transfer of the security mission to the European Union in December 2004. At the end of the war in the former Yugoslavia in the autumn of 1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a war-torn and war-torn country. The Dayton peace agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December, formally ended the war and our colleague Christian Clages, who is now ambassador to Beirut, participated in the negotiations. The main objective of the agreement is to promote peace and stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to promote regional balance in and around the former Yugoslavia (Article V, Appendix 1-B), i.e.
from a regional perspective.  December 14, 1995: The Dayton Peace Agreement was signed. In our series “On the front line of history”, our colleague Christian Clages remembers the laborious negotiations. The general framework agreement, which includes eleven annexes, was officially signed on 14 December in Paris by the parties and by President Clinton, French President Jacques Chirac, British Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. The agreement called on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to agree to fully respect sovereign equality between them and to resolve disputes by peaceful means. In addition, the parties agreed to fully respect the human rights and rights of refugees and displaced persons. Finally, the parties agreed to cooperate fully with all entities, including bodies authorized by the United Nations Security Council, to implement the peace settlement and to investigate and prosecute war crimes and other violations of international humanitarian law.